The Second Stage to #Handwriting Success – Single Letter Formation

https://teachhandwriting.co.uk/letter-animations-worksheets.html

Last week we explained that pre-handwriting patterns are the first stage of learning to handwrite. Once a child has mastered theses, they are ready to start learning how to form letters.

But where do you start?

Our view is to focus on lower-case letters first and only the capital letters for the first letter in a child’s, examples: Peter Rabbit, Sally Green, George Blue or Mary Shell.

Why?

  • One reason is that about 95% of what children write, and are exposed to, is in a lower-case form and only 5% in capital.
  • Lower-case letters are far less complicated, requiring fewer pencil lifts to complete the letters.
  • As both lower-case and capital letters require a child to form curved lines, a skill which most children have to practise, writing lower-case letters is no more difficult than writing capitals.
  • In a young child’s writing all the letters are initially the same size, whether they are capitals or lower case; it is part of the normal developmental path of handwriting. So, the view that teaching capitals letters is easier because they are bigger is not true.
  • Young children who have learnt mostly capital letters first find it difficult to stop, as it is so ingrained into the memory, often using them half way through words and sentences. Even when they are older this inappropriate use of capitals creeps back into their work especially if they are tired or concentrating hard on composing their work.

A child’s first major achievement, in their eyes, is to write their name. So, although concentrating on lower-case letters, teach them how to form the capital letter for the first letters of their name to get them excited about handwriting.

As they master the lower-case letters introduce the remainder of the capital letters. It is important that both are taught so that a child can develop a speedy, fluid and legible handwriting style.

Free Letter Formation Animations & Worksheets: http://bit.ly/2F9P7cI

The Importance of Using Letter Names

On our Teach Handwriting website and Scheme, as well as on our Teach Phonics website, children are taught the letter names to begin with. Some schools, teacher and parents still seem to be concerned that this is not consistent with the teaching of phonics. 

A myth which seems to have become popular, since the introduction of phonics into schools, is that children should not be taught the alphabet letter names as they find it too confusing. However, there is no evidence to suggest this is true. The Independent review of the teaching of early reading, final report, Jim Rose March 2006 states:

“The teaching of letter names is often left until after the sounds of the letters have been learned, in the belief that it can be confusing for children to have to learn both together. However, research indicates that children often learn letter names earlier than they learn letter sounds and that five year olds who know more letter names also know more letter sounds. The reasons for this are not fully understood by researchers’.

Given that children will meet many instances outside, as well as within, their settings and schools where letter names are used, it makes sense to teach them within the programme of early phonic work.

It appears that the distinction between a letter name and a letter sound is easily understood by the majority of children.” (Page 26)

Rose, cites Professor Morag Stuart who suggests that:

‘…children expect things to have names and are accustomed to rapidly acquiring the names of things.’ (Independent review of the teaching of early reading’ final report, Jim Rose March 2006, page 27.)

Learning the unique letter names of the alphabet is a pre-phonics skill; as well as an early learning goal. It has to be remembered that a letter is a shape which only represents a sound when it is placed within a word or sentence. Also a letter or combination of letters can represent more than one sound and so the only unique way of identifying alphabet letters when we talk about them is to use their names.

Learning the correct letter names helps to reinforce that when talking about the letter ‘a’ (ay) for example it has a set shape regardless of the sound that it will be representing in the word. This further supports children’s handwriting development as the communication of your requirements is unambiguous.

One of the first things we like a child to be able to write correctly is their name, however most names are impossible to spell using the simple phonics code taught to young children. A name does not have to be long in length to be phonetically difficult to spell such as Christopher or Charlotte. Shorter names such as Lucy or Liam also cause a problem. 

The only logical answer I suggest is to use the letter names until a child has been introduced to the more complex phonics coding system. 

Week 5 of Our 5 Week Handwriting Lesson Program

Week 5 Handwriting 2

The fifth week of our handwriting program is ready for you to download. Today it introduces the ‘Hooks, Loops & Lines Letters’.

The free weekly set of worksheets can be downloaded, printed off and used alongside our letter formation animations.

Click on this link and it will take you to the correct page of our website:

https://www.teachhandwriting.co.uk/covid-19-handwriting-lessons.html

5 Week Handwriting Lesson Program

Each week a new letter family will be introduced:

  1. Straight lines (Finished).
  2. Curves to start (Finished).
  3. Top exit (available until Sunday 17th May 2020)
  4. Tunnel
  5. Hooks, loops and lines

There is a separate worksheet for each day:

Monday – Have a go worksheet

Today you can check if your child knows how to write the letters and if they are writing them correctly. If you know your child cannot form the letters in the letter family then show them the letter animations and then let them have a go.

Tuesday & Wednesday – Specific letter practise days

Each day focuses on different sets of letters from the letter family.

Thursday & Friday – Letter practise days

On these days letters from the letter family being taught and some letters from letter families already introduced are practised.

There are also “Rainbow” worksheets where your child can share with others what they have learnt and achieved over the week as well as appropriately sized practise paper for them.

We hope you find these useful. If you have any questions about this 5 week handwriting program please feel free to contact us through the contact us page and we will do our best to help.

Take care Lucy & Chris from Teach Children Ltd

Week 4 of Our 5 Week Handwriting Lesson Program

Week 4 handwriting 1

The fourth week of our handwriting program is ready for you to download. Today it introduces the ‘Tunnel Letters’.

The free weekly set of worksheets can be downloaded, printed off and used alongside our letter formation animations.

Click on this link and it will take you to the correct page of our website:

https://www.teachhandwriting.co.uk/covid-19-handwriting-lessons.html

5 Week Handwriting Lesson Program

Each week a new letter family will be introduced:

  1. Straight lines (Finished).
  2. Curves to start (available until Sunday 10th May 2020).
  3. Top exit
  4. Tunnel
  5. Hooks, loops and lines

There is a separate worksheet for each day:

Monday – Have a go worksheet

Today you can check if your child knows how to write the letters and if they are writing them correctly. If you know your child cannot form the letters in the letter family then show them the letter animations and then let them have a go.

Tuesday & Wednesday – Specific letter practise days

Each day focuses on different sets of letters from the letter family.

Thursday & Friday – Letter practise days

On these days letters from the letter family being taught and some letters from letter families already introduced are practised.

There are also “Rainbow” worksheets where your child can share with others what they have learnt and achieved over the week as well as appropriately sized practise paper for them.

We hope you find these useful. If you have any questions about this 5 week handwriting program please feel free to contact us through the contact us page and we will do our best to help.

Take care Lucy & Chris from Teach Children Ltd

Week 3 of Our 5 Week Handwriting Lesson Program

Week 3 1

The third week of our handwriting program is ready for you to download. Today it introduces the ‘Top Exit Letters’ and revisits letters from the letter families already taught in week 1 – ‘Straight lines family’ and Week 2 – ‘Curves to start family’.

The free weekly set of worksheets can be downloaded, printed off and used alongside our letter formation animations.

Click on this link and it will take you to correct page of our website:

https://www.teachhandwriting.co.uk/covid-19-handwriting-lessons.html

5 Week Handwriting Lesson Program

Each week a new letter family will be introduced:

  1. Straight lines (available until Sunday 3rd May 2020).
  2. Curves to start
  3. Top exit
  4. Tunnel
  5. Hooks, loops and lines

There is a separate worksheet for each day:

Monday – Have a go worksheet

Today you can check if your child knows how to write the letters and if they are writing them correctly. If you know your child cannot form the letters in the letter family then show them the letter animations and then let them have a go.

Tuesday & Wednesday – Specific letter practise days

Each day focuses on different sets of letters from the letter family.

Thursday & Friday – Letter practise days

On these days letters from the letter family being taught and some letters from letter families already introduced are practised.

There are also “Rainbow” worksheets where your child can share with others what they have learnt and achieved over the week as well as appropriately sized practise paper for them.

We hope you find these useful. If you have any questions about this 5 week handwriting program please feel free to contact us through the contact us page and we will do our best to help.

Take care Lucy & Chris from Teach Children Ltd

Week 2 of Handwriting Lesson Program

Week 2 Handwriting 1

We posted the first week of our 5 Week Handwriting Lesson Program on 19th April 2020 which introduced the ‘straight lines family’. It is free 5 week, easy to use, handwriting program for you.

The second week of this handwriting program will be ready for you to download on Friday 24/04/20 and introduces the ‘curves to start family’.

The free weekly set of worksheets can be downloaded, printed off and used alongside our letter formation animations.

Click on this link and it will take you to correct page of our website:

https://www.teachhandwriting.co.uk/covid-19-handwriting-lessons.html

5 Week Handwriting Lesson Program

Each week a new letter family will be introduced:

  1. Straight lines
  2. Curves to start
  3. Top exit
  4. Tunnel
  5. Hooks, loops and lines

There is a separate worksheet for each day:

Monday – Have a go worksheet

Today you can check if your child knows how to write the letters and if they are writing them correctly. If you know your child cannot form the letters in the letter family then show them the letter animations and then let them have a go.

Tuesday & Wednesday – Specific letter practise days

Each day focuses on different sets of letters from the letter family.

Thursday & Friday – Letter practise days

On these days letters from the letter family being taught and some letters from letter families already introduced are practised.

There are also “Rainbow” worksheets where your child can share with others what they have learnt and achieved over the week as well as appropriately sized practise paper for them.

We hope you find these useful. If you have any questions about this 5 week handwriting program please feel free to contact us through the contact us page and we will do our best to help.

Take care Lucy & Chris from Teach Children Ltd

5 Week Handwriting Lesson Program

Due to the unusual times we find ourselves in, we have created an easy to use free 5 weeks handwriting program for you.

Starting from Monday 20th April 2020 and over the next 5 weeks we will provide you with a free weekly set of worksheets which can be downloaded, printed off and used alongside our letter formation animations.

Click on this link and it will take you to correct page of our website:

https://www.teachhandwriting.co.uk/covid-19-handwriting-lessons.html

5 Week Handwriting Lesson Program

Each week a new letter family will be introduced:

  1. Straight lines
  2. Curves to start
  3. Top exit
  4. Tunnel
  5. Hooks, loops and lines

Teaching Letter Joins – A Systematic Approach

Joins A & W 2

We would recommend teaching joins in join type groups, whether your child has learnt cursive or continuous cursive single letter fonts.

Teaching the join types in their groups helps a child to understand the directional pushes and pulls required to successfully join the different letter combinations.

There are 4 main groups of letter joins; bottom joins, bottom to “c” shape joins, “e” joins (top and bottom join strokes) and top joins.

Moving from Cursive Single Letters to Joining

There are seven join strokes to be taught. Most children will find the bottom joins the easiest to achieve, as it only requires the extension of the exit stroke they already put on the letters. The bottom to “c” shape joins can be tricky at first but soon mastered. The joins that tend to cause the most confusion and difficulty are the “e” joiners and top exit joiners.

I would recommend teaching the bottom joins first, then the ‘e’ joins and finally the top exit letter joins.

Moving from Continuous Cursive Single Letters to Joining

There are three join strokes to be taught. The easiest is the bottom exit letters (the majority of the letters), all a child has to do is write the letters closer together without lifting their pencil off the paper. Only the top to “e” and top joiners need to be taught for continuous cursive, as the nature of the font style means that the lead-in and exit strokes needed to join the majority of letter combinations have already been taught.

I would recommend teaching the bottom joins first, then the top exit to ‘e’ join and finally the top exit letter joins.

For our free join animations and worksheets: http://bit.ly/2F9P7cI

For tips to support the teaching of joins check out our Teaching Tips section:  http://bit.ly/2AaX8sk

When to Introduce Joined Handwriting

CC & Cursive 1

Here at Teach Children we believe that a child is only ready to start learning to join their handwriting when:

  • They have learnt to form all 26 lower case letters correctly
  • Letters are of a consistent and suitable size (not necessarily the perfect size, remember big is beautiful)
  • Letters are positioned appropriately on the writing line as well as in relation to one another.

Children generally begin to join letters between the ages of 6 to 7 years old, depending on the handwriting font style being taught. Those taught a continuous cursive font style from the beginning tend to join much earlier due to the nature of this font (for some by the end of their Reception Year).

Children do not need to be able to remember how to correctly form all their capital letters before they are taught how to join their letters. This is because capital letters never join to the lower-case letters in a word. However, for these children correct capital letter formation needs to be taught alongside the introduction of letter joins.

The ultimate aim is for a child to develop a good handwriting style; which means;

  • They can produce and maintain a good speed
  • Have a fluid hand movement that is comfortable
  • Letters are of a consistent and appropriate size, positioned correctly
  • Handwriting is legible (so others can read it easily).

For some children (mainly SEND pupils) this may mean that they will always print or use a single letter form of writing as learning to join is just not appropriate. But that does not mean they will not comply with the bullet points above.

Joining Letters – More Than Just Good Handwriting

join sentences

Research in recent years by psychologists, educationalists and neuroscientists has found that older children, with better handwriting skills showed greater neural activity in areas associated with working memory (used for planning, ideas generation and composition skills for written work).

Due to the way that our working memory functions the handwriting process can impact on the quality of the work. For instance, those who have poor handwriting ability use a disproportionate amount of their working memory capacity in recalling and forming the letters, effectively blocking the higher level composition process (Gathercole, Pickering, Knight & Stegmann 2004, cited Medwell et al. 2007).

This is because children with fluent handwriting skills have developed an automotive (instant, subconscious) ability to recall and reproduce letter patterns, making handwriting a lower level process within their working memory.

This would suggest that learning to handwrite with accuracy, fluidity, speed and legibility is a vital goal if we want our children to reach their full potential. Learning to join letters is therefore an important step to achieving this. Once handwriting has been mastered a child can focus more effectively on the composition and structure of the piece, which requires planning and logical thought processes, so that the plot or argument can be fully explored and presented.

Bibliography

Medwell. J, Wray. D: Handwriting: what do we know and what do we need to know, Literacy Vol. 41, No 1, April 2007.